Urine tests measure how well your kidneys filters are working. When functioning normally, glomerular filters are able to filter out wastes, but keep protein and red blood cells in the bloodstream. In many types of kidney disease, the tiny glomerular filters are damaged and become abnormally leaky. This allows proteins and red blood cells (that are normally kept in the bloodstream) to spill into the urine, where they can then be detected in several ways.
Urine Sediment Examination: In this examination, urine is poured into a test tube and spun in a centrifuge, and the sediment that goes to the bottom can be tested under the microscope. This test is very useful to your doctor to diagnosis your kidney disease. And it is also called "poor man's kidney biopsy". It can help value white blood cells, red blood cells, renal tubular cells, yeast, crystals and bacteria etc.
Urine Dipstick: In this test, a small flat plastic containing a row of several chemically-treated paper squares is dipped into a urine sample and the squares will appear different colors. The color will help your doctor to find various substances. For example, he may find whether blood, glucose or white blood cells are in your urine.
Urine Microalbumin determination. Standard tests, such as urine protein test may not detect a very small amount of protein in your urine. This is why urine microalbumin test is suggested. It helps to find microalbumin which can be a very earliest sign of kidney disease, especially in diabetes or hypertension patients.
Urine Protein Test. This test amis to find the actual number of milligrams or grams of protein in a sample. In addition, the result also works as a ratio of protein to creatinine. Once the urine protein or creatinine ration is more than 100mg protein per gram of creatinine, it is considered abnormal. And if the ratio >3.000, it usually means a very dangerous damage to kidneys.